In February 1998, I gave a short series of lectures
on Positional Astronomy
for second-year undergraduate students at the University of St.Andrews, Scotland.
These pages were created in 1998 to assist the
I now maintain them, in a revised and expanded form,
partly to assist the current generation of students at St.Andrews,
and partly as a service to the world-wide community.
You are welcome to link to this site from your own
But please do not reproduce any of this material without acknowledgement.
(1) Many of the equations use Greek letters as symbols.
If your browser does not distinguish between "a,b" and "α, β" (the Greek letters "alpha, beta") then I am afraid you will not be able to make much sense of the equations.
(2) These pages use "classical" definitions and terminology:
that is, those used previous to the International Astronomical Union's 2000 resolutions.
(For more information about this, see USNO Circular No.179.)
Comments, complaints or queries? Please e-mail me:
the address consists of my two initials, followed by "@st-and.ac.uk".
University of St.Andrews
Originally created March 1998.
Revised and updated November 2003.